22
January
2021
|
13:07 PM
America/New_York

Antibiotic overuse is a threat to your health. What you need to know.

3 MINUTE READ

Summary

Antibiotics are one of the best treatments for many illnesses. But many antibiotics are becoming less effective – even ineffective. Learn what we all can do to help fight antibiotic resistance.

The COVID-19 pandemic is widely recognized as our most pressing health challenge. But there is another serious public health matter that should also be on our collective conscious: antibiotic resistance.

For decades, we’ve been fortunate enough to live in a world where many bacterial infections can be cured with a short-term round of antibiotic medications. But it wasn’t that long ago that these illnesses could have been deadly. In fact, according to Healthy Children.org, prior to the availability of antibiotics, 90 percent of children infected with bacterial meningitis died. Even those who survived suffered lifelong complications such as deafness. 

But some antibiotics are now less effective than they once were, or worse yet, have lost their effectiveness altogether. The primary reasons? Overuse and misuse, such as using antibiotics when there is no need. And the consequences can be serious indeed.

What are antibiotics?

Antibiotics are medications that kill harmful bacteria that make people sick.

They’re used to treat everything from strep throat to sexually transmitted diseases.  

But the bacteria that antibiotics target are living, adaptive organisms. Those sickness-inducing bacteria that aren’t eliminated after a course of antibiotic treatment can survive and pass on their resistance to future generations. Some bacteria go a stealthy step further, conveying resistance to other types of bacteria.

While bacteria are expected to evolve and develop resistance to medication over time, the inappropriate use of antibiotics has sped up this process. How widespread is the problem? The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) states that at least 30 percent of prescribed antibiotics aren’t necessary. 

Unfortunately, for far too many of us, taking an antibiotic is on par with taking over-the-counter medications for aches and pains. But this casual approach has serious consequences.

Today, curing some bacterial illnesses requires more rounds of antibiotic medications than in the past. Not only does this mean that people can stay sicker for longer; antibiotics are not particularly discriminatory, so they can weaken or kill all kinds of bacteria in their wake. These include friendly bacteria that live in our systems and help us easily digest food, for example. Thus, the more antibiotics people take, the more they may suffer side effects such as indigestion, diarrhea and other issues.

More worrisome still: Some once-powerful antibiotics have completely lost their efficacy. According to the CDC, antibiotic-resistant bacteria are responsible for at least 2.8 million infections and more than 35,000 deaths in the U.S. every year.

The good news is that we can—and should—take steps to stop the antibiotic-resistant tide.

Breaking down myths around antibiotics 

It’s important to educate ourselves about what illnesses antibiotics can treat and how to use them responsibly.

Do antibiotics cure viruses?

No, though this is a common misperception. Antibiotics fight bacteria but do nothing to cure viruses, which are completely different germs. Viruses include illnesses such as the common cold, seasonal flu, stomach “flu” and COVID-19. Not only are antibiotics ineffective for viral infections, but they can also cause harmful side effects. For example, they can kill good bacteria that help our bodies function properly. Learn the differences between viral and bacterial illnesses.

Is it okay to stop taking prescribed antibiotics once you are feeling better?

No. It’s not unusual to begin feeling better before you end a prescribed course of antibiotics. But you should always take the entire prescription unless your doctor advises otherwise. Otherwise, bacteria will further build up their resistance for the next antibiotic battle.

Should I ask my doctor for antibiotics?

Again, no. Your doctor will carefully assess your symptoms and prescribe the appropriate treatment for your condition.

Enough with the no’s. What can I do to be proactive?

If there is anything positive that has come out of the COVID-19 pandemic, it’s that we are familiar with steps to avoid getting infected by germs that can make us sick:

  • Wash your hands/use hand sanitizer often
  • Stay away from those who show signs of sickness like coughing and sneezing
  • Make sure you and your loved ones are up to date on recommended vaccinations, including the seasonal flu vaccine
  • Use the entire antibiotic treatment as prescribed by your doctor—even if you feel better before it’s completed
  • Never take someone else’s antibiotic prescription

Antibiotics have saved millions of lives. It’s our collective responsibility to ensure these bacteria-fighting superpowers save countless more by using them responsibly.